Cetatea Deva - The Citadel of Deva
Location: Deva, Hunedoara (HD) county, Romania.
- The Citadel of Deva (called the pearl of the Mures), served as a royal citadel starting in the second half of the century XIII, the first document in this regard (1269), having been issued by King Stephen V. The fortress had an elongated shape, with a size of 90 m length and 18-35 m width, being provided with a palace, two towers and a cistern.
- At the end of the same century, the city became the court of Transylvanian princes Roland Borsa and Ladislau Kan. An interesting episode is linked to the coflict between the Hngarian king Otto and prince Ladislau Kan, after which the royal crown was held at Deva to be delivered later to King Carol Robert.
- A third phase of construction, reflected in the construction of the second precinct takes place in the days of General Castaldo (1551-1556), in the short period of Austrian occupation. The XVI century records both many situations involving prominent personalities of the era (John Zapolya, Queen Isabella) and the first turkish attacks on the city. Regarding religious history, the city of Deva is linked to the personality of Francisc David, founder of the Unitarian Church in Transylvania, who died in the citadel’s prison in 1597. The citadel’s cistern is now considered his memorial tomb.
- The era principles Gabriel Bethlen, Rákóczi I and Rákóczi II marks major works und upgrades in the citadel, imposed by military needs.At the end of the XVIII century the citadel comes into possession of the Habsburg house along with proprety taxes over the principality. After 1713, the Austrians radically transform the old defense systems by raising the third precinct, following an imperial intention to transform the citadel into a simple Vauban fortress.
- In August of 1849, due to negligence from the Hungarian garrison, the ammunition depots inside the fortress exploded. Afterwards, the monument was abandoned until 1969-1970 when the first works aimed at cleaning the walls take place. From 2007 to 2016 the second and third precincts were restored to the current form.
The Citadel of Deva, Hunedoara (HD) county, Romania (© travel.ro)
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